North Shore of Lake Superior

Remedial Action Plans

Environmental degradation in the Great Lakes has been a concern to residents of this region for decades.

For this reason, the Canadian and American governments signed the Canada-U.S. Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA) in 1972. This agreement committed both countries to work together to “restore and maintain the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the Great Lakes System”.

In 1987, Canada and the U.S. formally recognized 43 Areas of Concern (AOCs) around the Great Lakes – locations where local environmental degradation may be causing harm to the wider Great Lakes system. Of these 43 AOCs, 12 are located in Canada and 5 are shared bi-nationally. 

Once the AOCs were identified, a Remedial Action Plan (RAP) for each was developed. These RAPs define the nature, extent and causes of environmental problems, and recommend actions to restore and protect the environment. These plans are aimed at solving pollution problems, restoring water quality, wildlife habitat and beneficial uses of the ecosystem.

The North Shore of Lake Superior's

Areas of Concern:

Recent Updates

3 Stages of Environmental Restoration and Remediation

Stage 1

Identify environmental problems and sources of pollution.

Stage 2

Evaluate and carry out actions to restore the area.

Stage 3

Confirm that these actions have been effective and the environment has been restored.

How is the RAP Implemented?

Since 2008, the North Shore of Lake Superior RAP has been based out of Lakehead University.

The Remedial Action Plans are implemented by studying the Areas of Concern and engaging local stakeholders, Indigenous communities and municipalities to come up with scientifically sound, economically feasible and publicly supported solutions.

The North Shore of Lake Superior Remedial Action Plans are funded by the Environment and Climate Change Canada, the Ministry of Environment, Conservation and Parks and the Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry through the Canada-Ontario Agreement on Great Lakes Water Quality and Ecosystem Health.

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